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Constellation guide to the 88 official constellations which divide up the sky. These constellations are used to help navigate the celestial sphere. The Constellations are patterns in the sky which have been to invented and have deep mythology behind them. Constellations cover massive areas in the sky and as such are very easy to find.
Astronomical Objects Series
  1. Guide to the Constellations and Mythology
  2. What are Asteroids, Meteors and Comets?
  3. Binary Stars and Double Stars
  4. Variable Stars
  5. Supernova and Supernovae
  6. Types of Nebula and Nebulae
  7. What Is a Black Hole? Black Holes Explained - From Birth to Death
  8. Quasars
  9. Pulsars - The Universe's Gift to Physics
  10. Gamma Ray Bursts
  11. Kuiper Belt
  12. What is an Exoplanet?
  13. Galaxy Types and Galaxy Formation
  14. The Messier Catalogue
  15. The Caldwell Catalogue
  16. 25 Stunning Sights Every Astronomer Should See

Constellations are usually one of the first things new astronomers start observing, and something many professionals totally ignore in there exploration of deep space. Constellations aren't real objects, they are a figment of our creative imaginations.

Over the millennia we have grouped stars together to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices. The entire sky is divided up into 88 areas, each one a constellation. They help us navigate the night's sky, and navigate the Earth.

A constellation is a group of stars that make an imaginary shape in the night sky.

A constellation is a group of stars that make an imaginary shape in the night sky.

Constellation names, like the names of stars, come from a variety of sources and each has a different story and meaning to it. Some of the constellations have very familiar names, such as Leo, Gemini, Virgo and Aquarius. These are some of the 12 constellations which form the Zodiac. The Zodiac constellations follow the line of the ecliptic. The ecliptic is the apparent path of the Sun on the celestial sphere.

Although not an official constellation, the Plough is the most famous and easily recognised.

Although not an official constellation, the Plough is the most famous and easily recognised.

Not all of the constellations are visible from any one point on Earth. The star maps are typically divided into maps for the northern hemisphere and maps for the southern hemisphere. The season of the year can also affect what constellations are visible from where you are located on Earth.

The Big Dipper, shown above, isn't official, but one of the many unofficial constellations called Asterisms. An asterism might form part of an official constellation, like the Big Dipper, which is composed of the seven brightest stars in the constellation Ursa Major. Or the constellation might be made up of stars from different constellations. For example, the three points of the Summer Triangle asterism are Deneb, Altair, and Vega, which are the brightest stars in the constellations Cygnus, Aquila, and Lyra, respectively.

You can view more about each of the individual constellations and their mythology in the links below.

Tutorial Series

This post is part of the series Astronomical Objects. Use the links below to advance to the next tutorial in the couse, or go back and see the previous in the tutorial series.

Orion

The Hunter

Location: Northern Winter - 5h RA -5° Dec

Orion, a constellation often referred to as The Hunter, is a prominent constellation, perhaps the best-known in the sky. Its brilliant stars, on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world, make this constellation universally recognized.

The 'belt and sword' of Orion are frequently referred to in ancient and modern literature, and even found recognition as the shoulder insignia of the 27th Infantry Division of the United States Army during both World Wars, probably because the division's first commander was Major General John F. O'Ryan.

Orion

Orion Mythology

Artemis, the goddess of hunt and the moon, fell in love with Orion. She was so entranced by him, she forgot her divinely duty of illuminating the night sky. Her twin brother Apollo, seeing Orion swimming in the sea, dared his sister to strike what only appeared to be a spot on the waves. Not knowing it was Orion, Artemis shot an arrow and killed him. Later, when she found out what she did, she placed his body among the stars. The grief she felt explains why the moon looks so sad at night.

Orion Deep Space Objects

Hanging from Orion's belt is his sword, consisting of the multiple stars θ1 and θ2 Orionis, called the Trapezium and the Orion Nebula (M42). This is a spectacular object that can be clearly identified with the naked eye as something other than a star. Using binoculars, its clouds of nascent stars, luminous gas, and dust can be observed. M78 (NGC 2068) is a nebula in Orion. With an overall magnitude of 8.0, it is significantly dimmer than the Great Orion Nebula that lies to its south. Another fairly bright nebula in Orion is NGC 1999, also close to the Great Orion Nebula. Besides these nebulae, surveying Orion with a small telescope will reveal a wealth of interesting deep-sky objects, including M43, M78, as well as multiple stars including Iota Orionis and Sigma Orionis. A larger telescope may reveal objects such as Barnard's Loop and the Flame Nebula (NGC 2024), as well as fainter and tighter multiple stars and nebulae.

Constellations

Northern Circumpolar Constellations

These constellations can be viewed all year round in the Northern hemisphere as they move in a counterclockwise direction around the north celestial pole without setting or dipping below the horizon.

Northern Spring Constellations

These Northern constellations are best viewed around the spring months. The rest of the year the constellation will not rise during the night.

Northern Summer Constellations

These Northern constellations are best viewed around the summer months. The rest of the year the constellation will not rise during the night.

Northern Autumn Constellations

These Northern constellations are best viewed around the autumn months. The rest of the year the constellation will not rise during the night.

Northern Winter Constellations

These Northern constellations are best viewed around the winter months. The rest of the year the constellation will not rise during the night.